Biodiesel is a renewable, clean-burning fuel that is an alternative to conventional diesel. It is derived from biological sources such as vegetable oils, animal fats, and recycled cooking oils, and consists of long-chain fatty acid esters.

Biodiesel’s primary application is in transport. In addition to blends, efforts have been made to make it a drop-in biofuel, meaning it is 100% compatible with existing diesel engines and distribution infrastructure. This report provides detailed inputs on the opportunities presented by Biodiesel in the Indian market as well as its potential.

Biodiesel Market Potential

Current Market :

  • Market size: As of FY2021, the Indian biodiesel market stood at around 0.17 Million Tons. (1.7 lakh tons)
  • Growth: The market is projected to experience a healthy CAGR of 8.60% until FY2030.
  • Drivers:
    • Government support: The National Policy on Biofuels (2018) and rising blending mandates are fostering growth.
    • Reducing reliance on imports: Biodiesel offers a domestic alternative to imported crude oil, enhancing energy security.
    • Environmental benefits: Biodiesel is a cleaner-burning fuel, aligning with India’s focus on sustainability.
    • Rising demand: The transportation sector’s growth fuels demand for biodiesel.

Future Market Potential:

  • Projected market size by 2030: 0.26 Million Tonnes.
  • Growth factors:
    • Continued government support: Further policy advancements and incentives are expected to accelerate growth.
    • Technological advancements: Advancements in feedstock development and production processes could improve efficiency and cost-competitiveness.
    • Increased awareness: Growing environmental consciousness and promotion of sustainable practices could drive demand.

Companies in the Biodiesel sector

Biodiesel ProducersG-Energetic Biofuels Pvt. Ltd.Production of biodiesel from various feedstocks
Biomax FuelsLarge-scale biodiesel production using diverse feedstocks
Emami Agrotech Ltd.Biodiesel production from edible and non-edible oils
Raw Material Suppliers D-VoisCollection and aggregation of used cooking oil
Jindal BiotechCultivation of jatropha for biodiesel feedstock
Reliance IndustriesResearch and development in algae-based biodiesel
Manufacturers (Equipment)Praj IndustriesBiodiesel plant technology, equipment, and engineering services
Desmet BallestraProcess technologies for biodiesel production
B.D.S EngineeringBiodiesel production plants of various capacities
Technology ResearchIndian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT)R&D in biodiesel feedstocks, production processes, and catalysts
Center for High Technology (CHT)Promotion of sustainable biofuel technologies, including biodiesel

Biodiesel Production Technology and Processes

Biodiesel, a renewable and cleaner alternative to traditional diesel, is produced through a chemical process known as transesterification. Let’s delve into the key steps involved in this process:

1. Feedstock Selection and Pre-treatment:

  • Biodiesel can be derived from various feedstocks, including vegetable oils (palm, soybean, jatropha), animal fats, and used cooking oil.
  • The chosen feedstock undergoes pre-treatment, which might involve:
    • Filtering: Removing impurities like dirt, water, and solids.
    • Degumming: Removing gums and resins that can hinder the transesterification process.
    • Deacidification: Neutralizing free fatty acids that can reduce product yield and quality.

2. Transesterification Reaction:

  • This is the core of biodiesel production, where the pre-treated feedstock reacts with an alcohol (typically methanol or ethanol) in the presence of a catalyst (acid or base).
  • The reaction breaks down the triglycerides (fats) in the feedstock into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), which is the main component of biodiesel.
  • The process typically involves:
    • Mixing the feedstock, alcohol, and catalyst in a reactor under controlled temperature and stirring conditions.
    • Allowing the reaction to proceed for a specific duration to maximize FAME yield.

3. Separation and Purification:

  • After the transesterification reaction, the mixture needs to be separated into its components:
    • Glycerin: A byproduct of the reaction, often used in various industrial applications.
    • Biodiesel (FAME): The top layer, which needs further purification.
    • Soap stock: A mixture of impurities and unused catalyst, requiring proper disposal.
  • Purification processes like washing with water or using filtration methods remove residual alcohol, soaps, and other impurities from the biodiesel.

4. Quality Control and Blending:

  • The produced biodiesel undergoes rigorous quality testing to ensure it meets specific standards for properties like viscosity, flash point, and cetane number (combustion quality).
  • Biodiesel is often blended with conventional diesel fuel in various ratios (e.g., B20: 20% biodiesel, 80% diesel) for use in existing diesel engines with minimal modifications.

Alternative Technologies:

  • While transesterification is the most common method, alternative technologies like:
    • Enzymatic transesterification: Utilizes enzymes as catalysts, offering potentially higher yields and environmental benefits.
    • Supercritical fluid extraction: Uses supercritical fluids (like CO2) to extract oils from feedstocks, potentially improving efficiency and reducing environmental impact.

These are still under development or face challenges related to cost or scalability compared to traditional methods.

Top 10 feedstocks that can be used in Biodiesel

JatrophaRajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
PongamiaKarnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Orissa, Kerala
NeemRajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
MahuaMadhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh
KaranjaMadhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
CastorGujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
MustardRajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, West Bengal
Palm oilAndhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Assam, Tripura
Cottonseed oilGujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
Soybean oilMadhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka

Please note that only a few feedstock from the above list are currently being used in India, and predominantly it is the side streams generated during palm oil refining.

States in India suitable for a Biodiesel business


Uttar Pradesh
Large producer of animal fats and residues, has four biodiesel plants across the state.
Tamil Nadu

Has abundant availability of raw materials such as palm oil and jatropha, has a biodiesel policy to promote the industry.
MaharashtraHas a large demand for biodiesel from the transport and industry sectors, has a biodiesel blending mandate of 5%
KarnatakaHas a biodiesel mission to encourage farmers to grow biofuel crops, has a biodiesel blending mandate of 10%
Andhra Pradesh

Has a biodiesel policy to support the production and distribution of biodiesel, has a biodiesel blending mandate of 5%
RajasthanHas a large potential for biodiesel production from jatropha and karanja, has a biodiesel policy to promote the industry.
GujaratHas a biodiesel policy to support the production and distribution of biodiesel, has a biodiesel blending mandate of 5%
Madhya PradeshHas a biodiesel policy to encourage the cultivation of biofuel crops, has a biodiesel blending mandate of 5%
Has a biodiesel policy to support the production and distribution of biodiesel, has a biodiesel blending mandate of 5%
West BengalHas a biodiesel policy to promote the use of biodiesel in the transport sector.

Emerging Feedstocks

Here’s a breakdown of some emerging feedstocks gaining traction in India’s biodiesel sector:

1. Non-Edible Oilseeds

  • Jatropha: Drought-resistant plant that thrives on marginal lands. Its oil has high conversion potential but requires careful cultivation practices to ensure sustainability.
  • Pongamia (Karanja): Hardy tree suitable for various soil conditions. Its seeds yield oil suitable for biodiesel but need a strong supply chain and processing infrastructure.
  • Mahua: A tree significant to tribal areas. Its flowers and seeds are both valuable, with seed oil showing promise for biodiesel production.

2. Waste Streams

  • Used Cooking Oil (UCO): Shows the greatest immediate potential in India due to collection initiatives and government support. Requires pre-treatment, but offers a significant avenue for waste reduction and fuel production.
  • Animal fats and Slaughterhouse waste: While not widely used yet, they have the potential to convert waste into valuable biodiesel, with the need for efficient rendering processes.

3. Other Explorations

  • Algae
    • Microalgae: Offers high lipid content for biodiesel production. The potential lies in using wastewater for cultivation, combining water treatment with fuel production.
    • Macroalgae (Seaweeds): Abundant along India’s coastline, research is exploring their potential for biodiesel with a focus on sustainable harvesting models.

  • Microbial oils: Single-cell organisms that can accumulate lipids are being researched for biodiesel production, focusing on finding efficient strains and scaling up processes.
  • Cellulosic Biomass: While still under research, technologies to convert non-food portions of plants (agricultural residues, forest waste) into biodiesel feedstock offer long-term potential.

Emerging Tech and Process Innovations in the Biodiesel Sector: 

The biodiesel industry is constantly evolving, with research and development efforts focused on improving efficiency, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. Here are some recent and emerging technological and process innovations in the sector:

1. Advanced Feedstock Options:

  • Non-edible oilseeds: Exploring and utilizing non-edible oilseeds like Pongamia (Karanj), Jatropha curcas, and Neem, which don’t compete with food production and can grow in marginal lands.
  • Microalgae: Cultivating microalgae in controlled environments offers a potential source of high-quality feedstock with minimal land use and efficient production cycles.
  • Waste biomass: Utilizing waste materials like food waste, agricultural residues, and municipal solid waste through processes like gasification and pyrolysis to generate bio-oil for biodiesel production.

2. Advanced Processing Technologies:

  • Supercritical fluid extraction: Utilizing supercritical fluids like CO2 for efficient extraction of oil from feedstocks, potentially reducing solvent usage and environmental impact.
  • Enzymatic Transesterification: Replacing chemical catalysts with enzymes for the transesterification process, offering potential advantages like higher yields, milder reaction conditions, and easier product separation.
  • Plasma-assisted transesterification: Utilizing plasma technology to accelerate and improve the efficiency of the transesterification process, potentially reducing reaction time and energy consumption.

3. Integrated Systems and Process Optimization:

  • Biorefinery concepts: Integrating biodiesel production with other biofuel pathways or bio-based product generation, creating a more efficient and versatile utilization of feedstocks.
  • Digitalization and automation: Utilizing sensors, data analytics, and automation technologies to optimize production processes, monitor quality control, and improve resource utilization.
  • Life cycle assessment (LCA) tools: Utilizing LCA to assess the environmental impact of different feedstock choices and production processes across the entire lifecycle, informing sustainable decision-making.

Recent Innovations:

  • Enzymatic production of biodiesel from waste plastic: Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi have developed an enzymatic process to convert waste plastic bottles into biodiesel, offering a potential solution to plastic waste management while contributing to renewable fuel production.
  • Algae-bacteria consortium for simultaneous nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Scientists have developed a system combining algae and bacteria, where algae consume wastewater nutrients while bacteria convert the algal biomass into biodiesel, offering a solution for wastewater treatment and biofuel production simultaneously.
  • Catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oils: This technology uses catalysts to remove oxygen from vegetable oils, creating bio-oil more compatible with existing refinery infrastructure for producing high-quality biodiesel.

Biodiesel Technologies by TRL Level

TRL LevelDevelopment StageDescriptionExamples
TRL 9Mature TechnologiesCommercially available and widely used for biodiesel production.Transesterification from vegetable oils and animal fats
TRL 7-8Advanced DevelopmentDemonstrated in pilot or commercial-scale operations, approaching widespread adoption.Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass
TRL 5-6Validation StageIndividual technologies or processes validated in relevant environments.Enzymatic transesterification, Supercritical alcohol transesterification
TRL 3-4Early DevelopmentBasic functionalities and concepts proven in laboratory settings.Microbial transesterification, Algal biodiesel production
TRL 1-2Fundamental ResearchInitial research and concept development stage, not yet tested in practical settings.Genetic engineering of oil-producing microorganisms, Pyrolysis for biodiesel production

End-Use Applications of Biodiesel in India

Transportation SectorBlending with diesel: Mixing biodiesel with conventional diesel in various proportions (e.g., B5, B20) to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and use in road vehicles and some off-road applications.
Railways: Exploring and expanding the use of biodiesel blends for powering locomotives, aiming for emission reductions.
Industrial ApplicationsPower generation: Limited but important use in diesel generators as backup power or captive power in remote locations.
Boilers: Limited use in some industrial boilers for heating purposes as an alternative to furnace oil.
Other Potential ApplicationsOff-road equipment: Potential for use in agricultural machinery, construction equipment, and marine vessels with further research on engine compatibility.
Solvent: Niche applications as a non-toxic solvent for cleaning greasy parts or dissolving oil spills.

Sectors that would benefit from Biodiesel in India

AgricultureFarmers: Increased income, improved soil health.Cultivating non-edible oilseeds (Jatropha, Pongamia) or selling used cooking oil can generate additional income. Biodiesel production can potentially lead to the development of bio-based fertilizers, improving soil health.
Environment and Climate ChangeReduced greenhouse gas emissions, improved air quality.Biodiesel is a renewable and cleaner alternative to fossil fuels, potentially contributing to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants.
Energy Security and IndependenceReduced reliance on imported fossil fuels, diversification of energy sources.Utilizing domestically produced biodiesel can decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels, contributing to India’s energy security and diversification.
Waste ManagementReduced waste disposal burden, value creation from waste.Biodiesel production can utilize waste streams like used cooking oil, offering a sustainable way to manage these wastes and convert them into valuable fuel.
Rural DevelopmentJob creation, economic opportunities in rural areas.The biodiesel industry can create employment opportunities in areas like feedstock cultivation, processing, and distribution, potentially benefiting rural communities.
Transportation SectorCleaner fuel options, reduced emissions from vehicles.Using biodiesel blends in vehicles can contribute to cleaner transportation, potentially reducing harmful emissions compared to conventional diesel.


  • Technology providers: Companies developing and manufacturing technologies for biodiesel production benefit from increased demand and market growth.
  • Research institutions: Research and development activities related to new feedstocks, production processes, and engine compatibility can create opportunities for research institutions and universities.

Sectors Indirectly Benefiting from the Biodiesel Industry in India

Manufacturing SectorIncreased demand for machinery, equipment (processing plants, storage tanks, etc.) and development of new technologies for cultivation, extraction, and refining.
Construction SectorInfrastructure development for feedstock cultivation, production facilities, storage, and distribution.
Financial Services SectorInvestment opportunities in projects related to feedstock cultivation, production, and infrastructure.
Logistics and Transportation SectorTransportation of feedstock and finished biodiesel products (trucking, warehousing, port operations).
Retail and Distribution SectorFuel retailers selling biodiesel blends, potentially requiring infrastructure upgrades and staff training.

Key Drivers and Opportunities for Biodiesel: 


  • Environmental concerns: Growing awareness of climate change and the need for cleaner fuels is driving the demand for renewable alternatives like biodiesel. Biodiesel offers significant potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional diesel.
  • Depleting fossil fuel reserves: Concerns about dwindling fossil fuel reserves and volatile oil prices are prompting countries to explore alternative fuel sources. Biodiesel offers a domestic and sustainable option, promoting energy independence and security.
  • Government support: Many governments are implementing policies like mandates for blending biodiesel with conventional diesel, tax breaks, and subsidies to support the production and adoption of biofuels. This provides a significant incentive for market growth.
  • Technological advancements: Ongoing research and development are leading to improved production technologies, feedstock options, and conversion efficiencies. This can help reduce biodiesel production costs and make it more competitive with traditional diesel.
  • Waste management: Biodiesel production can help address the challenge of managing used cooking oil, a potential environmental pollutant. It offers a valuable recycling option and promotes a circular economy.


  • Growing demand for sustainable transportation fuels: The transportation sector is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel presents an opportunity to decarbonize this sector and contribute to achieving environmental sustainability goals.
  • Expansion into new markets and applications: Biodiesel can potentially be used in various applications beyond transportation, such as heating, power generation, and industrial processes. This opens up new markets and increases its potential impact.
  • Utilisation of diverse feedstocks: Exploring and utilizing alternative feedstocks like jatropha, algae, and non-food crops can ensure the sustainability of biodiesel production and avoid competition with food production.
  • Integration with other renewable energy sources: Biodiesel production can be integrated with renewable energy sources like solar or wind power to reduce reliance on fossil fuels for the production process, further enhancing its environmental benefits.
  • Job creation and economic development: The growth of the biodiesel industry can create new jobs in various sectors, such as feedstock production, processing, and distribution, contributing to economic development and rural revitalization.

Key Challenges Facing the Biodiesel Industry: 

Despite the promising potential of biodiesel as a renewable fuel, the industry faces several significant challenges that need to be addressed for its widespread adoption and continued growth. Here are some key obstacles:

1. Feedstock Availability and Sustainability:

  • Jatropha failure: Initial focus on Jatropha as a primary feedstock faced challenges due to unsuitable land, poor yields, and social issues surrounding land acquisition. Finding alternative, sustainable, and domestically viable feedstock options is crucial.
  • Algae biodiesel infeasible right now: While algae has the potential to be a scalable feedstock for biodiesel, the efforts are still at a research stage and commercialization could take quite a while.
  • Competing land use: Finding suitable land for dedicated energy crops without displacing food production or impacting land use patterns is a major challenge in densely populated and resource-constrained India.

2. Policy and Regulatory Framework:

  • Inconsistent policy implementation: Frequent changes and delays in implementing biofuel mandates and associated incentives can create uncertainty and hinder investment in the biodiesel industry.
  • Limited financial support: Compared to other countries, India currently offers less financial support through subsidies and tax breaks for biodiesel production, making it less competitive with traditional diesel.

3. Infrastructure and Market Development:

  • Limited blending infrastructure: The existing infrastructure for blending and distributing biodiesel is still limited, particularly in rural areas, hindering wider accessibility and adoption.
  • Lack of awareness and technical expertise: Limited public awareness about biodiesel and a lack of readily available technical expertise in the sector can hinder market development and adoption.

4. Feedstock Logistics and Pre-treatment:

  • Fragmented and dispersed feedstock sources: Collecting and transporting used cooking oil or other feedstocks from geographically dispersed sources can be challenging and expensive, impacting production costs.
  • Limited pre-treatment facilities: Lack of adequate infrastructure for pre-treating feedstocks to meet quality standards can hinder production efficiency and product quality.

Government policies and initiatives

The Indian government, recognizing the potential of the biodiesel sector, has implemented various policies and initiatives to support its growth. Here’s a breakdown of some key policies:

Central Government Policies:

  • National Policy on Biofuels (2009): This policy sets a target of blending 20% biodiesel with conventional diesel by 2030. It also provides various incentives, including:
    • Mandatory blending: Encourages oil marketing companies to blend biodiesel with diesel.
    • Viability Gap Funding (VGF): Provides financial assistance for setting up biodiesel production plants.
    • Tax concessions: Offers tax benefits on excise duty and customs duty for biodiesel producers.
    • Research and development: Supports research and development activities related to feedstock diversification, production technologies, and engine compatibility.
  • Mission on Flex-Fuel Vehicles: Aims to promote the adoption of flex-fuel vehicles capable of running on both petrol and higher ethanol blends. This indirectly supports the biodiesel sector as it can potentially encourage similar initiatives for biodiesel blends in the future.

State Government Policies:

  • Several state governments have also implemented their own policies to support the biodiesel sector:
    • Subsidies and financial assistance: Some states offer state-specific subsidies for setting up biodiesel plants or cultivating non-edible oilseed crops.
    • Land allocation: Certain states provide land at concessional rates for establishing biodiesel production facilities.
    • Procurement of biodiesel: Some states mandate the use of biodiesel blends in government vehicles or public transport fleets.

Business models of Biodiesel sector in India:

Feedstock Cultivation & Oil ExtractionBusinesses grow non-edible oilseed crops and extract oil for sale to biodiesel producersCompanies specializing in Jatropha, Pongamia cultivationDirect control over feedstock supply, potential partnership with farmersRequires land availability, vulnerable to crop yield fluctuations, competition with food crops needs careful consideration
Biodiesel ProductionCompanies set up refineries to convert feedstocks (oils, UCO, etc.) into biodieselCompanies like Emami Agrotech, Biomax, Southern Online BiotechnologiesPotential economies of scale, ability to utilize diverse feedstocksSignificant capital investment, vulnerable to feedstock price fluctuations
Waste-to-BiodieselFocus on the collection and conversion of waste streams (UCO, animal fats) into biodieselCompanies partnering with restaurants, hotels, or municipalities for UCO collectionContributes to waste management, potential for lower feedstock costsRequires reliable waste collection systems, pre-processing technology, consistent waste supply
Integrated ModelCombines multiple parts of the value chain, from feedstock cultivation to distributionSome large-scale companies with own land and refineriesDiversified revenue streams, potential for cost optimizationComplexity of managing multiple segments, risk spread across the value chain
Blending & DistributionCompanies procure biodiesel, blend as per mandates, and distribute through fuel retailersEstablished fuel marketing companies, some independent playersLeverages existing fuel distribution networksReliance on biodiesel availability and blending regulations

Key Stakeholders in the Biodiesel Ecosystem:

  • Feedstock Suppliers:
    • Small and marginal farmers: Potential source of non-edible oilseeds as feedstock.
    • Waste management companies: Collect and pre-treat used cooking oil.
    • Integrated oil companies like Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) and Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL): May invest in dedicated feedstock production or partnerships with farmers.
  • Biodiesel Producers:
    • Indian Oil Corporation (IOC): Operates the country’s largest biodiesel plant in Haldia, West Bengal.
    • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL): Has invested in biodiesel production facilities and promotes blending.
    • Other private companies: Several companies like D1 Agro and UCO Biodiesel are emerging players in the Indian market.
  • Policymakers and Regulators:
    • Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE): Formulates and implements policies for promoting biofuels, including biodiesel.
    • NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India): Think tank that provides policy and strategic advice to the government, including on biofuels.
  • Research Institutions:
    • Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP): Conducts research on biofuels and related technologies.
    • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR): Network of research laboratories working on various aspects of biofuels, including feedstock development and production processes.
  • Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs): Can play a crucial role in aggregating and supplying non-edible oilseed feedstocks from farmers.

Strategic initiatives adopted by Indian industries in the biodiesel sector:

1. Focus on Waste-to-Biodiesel (WtB) Conversion:

  • Utilizing Used Cooking Oil (UCO): Industries are establishing collection networks with restaurants, hotels, and households. They are also investing in pre-processing and refining technologies to efficiently convert UCO into biodiesel.
  • Exploring other waste streams: Research and development efforts are exploring the use of animal fats, slaughterhouse waste, and non-edible oilseed cakes as potential feedstocks for biodiesel.

2. Feedstock Development and Diversification:

  • Sustainable cultivation: Companies are partnering with farmers or investing in land for the cultivation of non-edible oilseeds like Jatropha and Pongamia. The focus is on utilizing marginal lands and sustainable agricultural practices.
  • Emerging feedstocks: Industries are exploring the potential of newer feedstocks like algae and microbial oils for future biodiesel production.

3. Technology Innovation and Adoption:

  • Improving production efficiency: Industries are constantly optimizing processes and exploring new technologies to enhance biodiesel yields and reduce production costs.
  • Advanced refining technologies: Focus on developing and deploying advanced pre-treatment and refining methods to efficiently handle diverse feedstocks.

4. Integration and Collaboration:

  • Partnerships along the value chain: Companies are forming partnerships with feedstock suppliers, technology providers, and oil marketing companies (OMCs) to create robust supply chains and ensure market access.
  • Joint ventures and projects: Industries sometimes collaborate on large-scale biodiesel projects to share resources, expertise, and manage project risks.

5. Government Engagement and Policy Support:

  • Advocacy for favorable policies: Industry associations like the Bio Energy Society of India (BESI) and individual companies work closely with government agencies to shape policies that support biodiesel development and blending mandates.
  • Participation in pilot projects: Companies participate in government-sponsored pilot projects and demonstration plants to test new technologies and feedstocks.

Future Directions:

The strategic initiatives in the Indian biodiesel sector are likely to continue focusing on:

  • Feedstock availability: Ensuring a reliable and sustainable supply of various feedstocks, especially waste-based resources.
  • Policy support: Continued advocacy for favorable policies, incentives, and clear regulations for the sector.
  • Technological development: Increased investments in research and development towards commercially viable technologies for new feedstocks and more efficient production process.

Related Posts