Biomass briquettes and pellets represent a key innovation in the field of renewable energy. Derived from organic materials such as agricultural residues, energy crops, or forestry waste, these compacted forms of biomass offer a sustainable and carbon-neutral alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Here is an overview of the Briquettes and Pellets market in India.

Current and Future Market Potential of Biobased Briquettes and Pellets in India

Current Market Drivers

  • Growing Demand for Clean Cooking Solutions: Concerns about air pollution and indoor air quality are driving a shift towards cleaner burning fuels. Biomass briquettes and pellets offer a more eco-friendly alternative with lower emissions.
  • Government Initiatives: The Indian government is promoting the use of clean cooking fuels through subsidies and schemes like the Ujjwala Yojana (LPG program). Additionally, initiatives like the co-firing of biomass with coal in power plants, led by entities like NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation), further encourage the adoption of biomass briquettes and pellets. Co-firing involves blending biomass with coal during combustion, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and promoting the sustainable utilization of biomass resources. These initiatives create a supportive policy environment and enhance the market potential for biomass briquettes and pellets in India.
  • Rising Biomass Availability: India has a vast agricultural residue base, including crop stubble and waste wood, which can be utilized as raw material for briquette and pellet production. This abundant resource base offers cost-effective feedstock for the sector.
  • Increasing Urbanization: The growing urban population creates a demand for convenient and efficient cooking fuels. Biomass briquettes and pellets offer a cleaner and more manageable alternative to traditional firewood.

Future Market Potential

  • Technological Advancements: Advancements in production technologies can enhance efficiency and reduce costs, making biomass briquettes and pellets more competitive with traditional fuels.
  • Focus on Sustainability: The increasing focus on environmental sustainability is expected to drive demand for clean and renewable energy sources, including biobased fuels.
  • Product Innovation: The development of new product formulations with improved burning properties and heat output can further enhance the attractiveness of biomass briquettes and pellets.
  • Export Potential: India has the potential to become a major exporter of biomass briquettes and pellets to neighboring countries with similar fuel needs and sustainability concerns.

Biomass Briquettes and Pellets Sector in India: Key Players

CategoryExamples DescriptionFocus Area/Products
Producers (Raw Material Suppliers)Greenware Revolution Pvt. Ltd.Manufactures eco-friendly packaging solutions using starch-based bioplastics.Sustainable packaging for food service and retail.
– MESCO Industries Ltd. (Rajasthan)Sources and processes wood waste from sawmills and forestry operations.Sustainable management of wood waste resources.
– Nepra Umwelttechnik Pvt. Ltd. (Maharashtra)Supplies a variety of biomass feedstocks like rice husk, groundnut shells, and bagasse.Specialization in diverse biomass materials and pre-processing.
– Green Nest (Uttar Pradesh)Provides agricultural residue like wheat straw and corn cobs through a network of farmers.Aggregator model connecting farmers with the biofuel industry.
Manufacturers (Briquette & Pellet Producers)UCOE Technologies Pvt. Ltd. (Gujarat)Manufactures a range of bio-briquettes and pellets using agricultural residue and industrial waste for domestic and industrial uses.Diversified product portfolio for various applications.
– Akshay Urja Pvt. Ltd. (Maharashtra)Specializes in the production of high-quality wood pellets for industrial boilers and power plants.Focus on large-scale industrial biofuel solutions.
– Pavan Bio Energy Pvt. Ltd. (Karnataka)Manufactures bio-briquettes and pellets from agricultural residue and offers customized solutions for different needs.Customization and client-centric approach.
Green Energy Biofuels Pvt. Ltd.Specializes in the production of high-density bio-briquettes and pellets from diverse biomass feedstocks.Supply of high-density biomass fuels for various applications.
Technology Solution Providers– Pellet Mill India Pvt. Ltd. (Tamil Nadu)Offers a variety of briquette and pellet-making machines catering to different capacities and feedstock types.Manufacturing and supply of briquetting and pelleting machinery.
– Biomass Research Center (BRC) (Assam)Researches optimizing biomass conversion technologies for efficient briquette and pellet production.Research and development in biomass conversion technologies.
– CPPRI (Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology) (Assam)Develops innovative technologies for densification of biomass materials for improved fuel efficiency.Advanced technologies for biomass densification.
– Bio-Energy Research Institute (BERI) (Lucknow)Provides technical expertise and consultancy services for setting up bio-briquette and pellet manufacturing units.Knowledge sharing and consultancy services for sector development.
– Thermax Ltd. (Pune)Offers industrial biomass boilers and combustion systems designed for using bio-briquettes and pellets.Integration of biofuels with industrial heating and power generation systems.

Biomass Briquettes and Pellets Production: The Technical Details

1. Feedstock Selection and Preparation

  • Biomass Sources: A variety of agricultural residues (rice straw, wheat stubble, sugarcane bagasse), wood waste (sawdust, wood chips), or dedicated energy crops can be used as feedstock.
  • Selection Criteria: Moisture content, size, and calorific value (energy content) are crucial factors when selecting feedstock.
  • Preparation: Feedstock needs to be crushed, shredded, or hammer-milled to achieve a uniform size suitable for briquetting or pelleting. Drying might be required to reduce moisture content and improve burning efficiency.

2. Briquette Production

  • Briquetting Process: Prepared biomass is compressed under high pressure and heat using a briquette press. Binders like starch or molasses might be added to enhance binding properties.
  • Briquette Shapes and Sizes: Briquettes come in various shapes (rectangular, oval, hexagonal) and sizes (depending on the press and application).

3. Pellet Production

  • Pelleting Process: Dried and sized biomass is fed into a pellet mill. A die with small holes compresses the material while rollers force it through, forming cylindrical pellets. Steam or binders might be used to improve pellet quality.
  • Pellet Size and Standards: Pellets typically have a diameter of 6-8 mm and a length of 10-30 mm. International standards like EN 14961-2 define quality parameters for biofuel pellets.

4. Drying and Cooling

  • Moisture Removal: After briquetting or pelleting, the product might undergo further drying to reduce moisture content and ensure proper storage and combustion.
  • Cooling Process: The briquettes or pellets are cooled to prevent self-ignition and maintain their shape.

5. Storage and Packaging

  • Storage Requirements: Briquettes and pellets need to be stored in dry and well-ventilated areas to prevent moisture absorption and degradation.
  • Packaging: Packaging options include sacks, bags, or bulk containers depending on the distribution channel and target market.

Feedstock Options for Biomass Briquettes and Pellets Production in India

The success of a biomass briquette and pellet business in India hinges on readily available and cost-effective feedstock. Here’s a detailed breakdown of the key feedstock categories and their characteristics

CategoryFeedstock Examples (India Focus)DescriptionAdvantagesDisadvantages
Agricultural Residue (Most Abundant)– Rice Straw (Punjab, Haryana, UP, Andhra Pradesh)
– Wheat Stubble (Punjab, Haryana, MP)
– Sugarcane Bagasse (Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu)
– Other Crop Residues (Corn Cobs, Cotton Stalks, Groundnut Shells)
This category forms the backbone of feedstock availability in India due to the vast agricultural sector.
– Rice straw is a dominant source, particularly in major rice-producing states.
– Wheat stubble is another significant contributor, especially in the north.
– Sugarcane bagasse offers potential in sugar-producing regions.
– Other crop residues can be utilized based on regional variations.
– Readily available and abundant.
– Relatively low cost compared to other options.
– Renewable resources with proper management practices.
– Seasonal availability, requiring storage solutions.
– High moisture content might necessitate drying before processing.
– Transportation costs can impact business viability depending on location.
Wood Waste (Consider Location)– Sawdust and Wood Chips (Himachal Pradesh, J&K, North-Eastern States)
– Wood Pellets (Leftover/Rejected)
Wood waste offers a viable option in specific regions with forestry or sawmill operations.
– Sawdust and wood chips are generated as byproducts in these sectors.
– Leftover or rejected wood pellets can be a potential source for briquette production.
– Renewable resources with proper forest management.
– Offers good calorific value for efficient burning.
– Availability can be limited compared to agricultural residue.
– Transportation costs might be higher depending on the source.
– Sourcing might require collaboration with sawmills or forestry departments.
Dedicated Energy Crops (Emerging Option)– Napier Grass
– Miscanthus
Dedicated energy crops are a promising but less common feedstock option in India currently.
– These crops are specifically cultivated for biofuel production.
– Government initiatives promoting energy crop plantation can encourage wider adoption.
– Sustainable and renewable source with potential for year-round cultivation.
– Offers good calorific value and consistent quality.
– Requires dedicated land for cultivation, impacting initial investment.
– Not yet widely cultivated in India, limiting availability.
– Long-term planning and management strategies are needed.

Emerging and Under-Research Feedstock Options for Biomass Briquettes and Pellets in India

CategoryFeedstock ExamplesDescriptionPotential BenefitsChallenges
Agricultural Byproducts– Crop Stalks & Leaves (Corn, Sorghum, Pulses)
– Fruit & Vegetable Wastes
These abundant resources offer potential feedstock after harvest or spoilage.– Utilizes waste materials, reducing environmental impact.
– Diversifies the feedstock base for briquette and pellet production.
– Requires research on collection, processing, and densification techniques.
– Moisture content management might be crucial for some options.
Waste from Sugar Processing– Bagasse
– Press Mud
Byproducts from sugarcane processing can be converted into biomass briquettes and pellets.Abundant and cost-effective feedstock. – Reduces waste from sugar processing.– Moisture content management and pre-processing requirements.
– Ensuring consistent supply and quality.
Forest ResiduesLogging Residues (Branches, Twigs) – Forest Thinning (Undergrowth, Deadwood)Residues left from logging operations and forest management can be utilized as feedstock.Utilizes otherwise waste materials, promoting forest health. – Provides a renewable and sustainable feedstock source.– Requires efficient collection and processing techniques.
– Managing transportation logistics and cost-effectiveness.
Invasive Plant Species– Prosopis Juliflora (Mesquite)
– Lantana Camara
– Bamboo
These fast-growing invasive plants can be converted into biofuel.– Controls invasive species growth and creates a valuable resource.
– Offers a sustainable and renewable feedstock source.
– Research needed on optimal harvesting, processing methods, and potential impact on ecosystems.
– Ensuring sustainable management practices to prevent re-invasion.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)– Organic Fraction (Food Scraps, Yard Waste)The organic fraction of MSW can be converted into biochar for briquettes and pellets.– Promotes waste management by diverting organic waste from landfills.
– Offers a renewable feedstock source while creating a valuable product.
– Requires strict source separation and efficient composting techniques for MSW.
– Ensuring proper waste management practices to minimize contamination.

Emerging technologies

1. Internet of Things (IoT) for Real-Time Monitoring and Control

  • Remote Monitoring: IoT sensors can be deployed throughout production facilities to collect real-time data on temperature, pressure, moisture content, and other critical parameters. This data can be monitored remotely, enabling operators to make adjustments and ensure optimal production conditions.
  • Supply Chain Management: IoT-enabled tracking systems can be implemented to monitor the movement of feedstock and finished products throughout the supply chain. This improves transparency, logistics efficiency, and overall production visibility.

2. Blockchain Technology for Transparency and Traceability

  • Sustainable Sourcing: Blockchain technology can be used to track the origin of biomass feedstock, ensuring sustainable sourcing practices and preventing the use of illegally harvested wood. This promotes responsible production and fosters trust among consumers.
  • Product Authentication: Blockchain can be leveraged to create tamper-proof records of the production process and origin of briquettes and pellets. This ensures product authenticity and combats counterfeiting, protecting both producers and consumers.

3. Advanced Conversion Technologies

  • Fast Pyrolysis: This thermochemical process rapidly heats biomass in an oxygen-depleted environment, converting it into bio-oil, char, and gas. The bio-oil can be further processed into valuable biofuels, while the char can be used for briquette production, potentially creating a more versatile product portfolio.
  • Plasma Gasification: Plasma gasification utilizes high-temperature plasma torches to convert biomass into syngas, a mixture of gases that can be used for various applications, including generating electricity or producing high-quality biofuels for briquette and pellet production.

End-Use Applications of Biomass Briquettes and Pellets

CategoryApplicationBenefitsConsiderationsInfluencing Factors
Domestic Applications– Household Cooking (Rural Focus)– Reduced smoke & emissions for a healthier cooking environment.
– Improved efficiency for faster cooking times & potentially lower fuel needs.
– Convenient & consistent standardized shapes and sizes for easier storage & use.
– Availability & affordability in rural areas.
– Public awareness & education on the benefits of clean cooking fuels.
– Regional focus on rural electrification & clean cooking initiatives.
– Price competitiveness compared to traditional fuels.
Industrial Applications– Industrial Boilers (Steam Generation, Process Heating)– Renewable & sustainable fuel source, reducing dependence on fossil fuels.
– Cost-competitive alternative to fossil fuels in some regions.
– Stable burning characteristics for efficient heat generation & process control.
– Industrial boiler compatibility and infrastructure for biofuel use.
– Government policies promoting industrial adoption of biofuels.
– Industrial energy demand and fuel costs.
– Availability and logistics of biomass feedstock for industrial facilities.
Additional Applications– Brick Kilns (Partial/Complete Coal Replacement)– Reduced emissions for cleaner brick production, contributing to a healthier environment.
– Sustainable construction practices, aligning with eco-conscious trends.
– Brick kiln technology adaptations for efficient biofuel use.
– Regulations and incentives for cleaner brick production.
– Government regulations on emissions from brick kilns.
– Economic feasibility of biofuel adoption compared to coal.
Additional Applications– Power Generation (Large-Scale Biomass Power Plants)– Renewable & potentially carbon-neutral source of electricity, diversifying the energy mix.
– Contributes to a cleaner electricity grid by reducing reliance on fossil fuels.
– Large-scale biomass feedstock availability and logistics for power plants.
– Government support for renewable energy projects.
– National energy security goals and renewable energy targets.
– Technological advancements in biomass power generation.
Additional Applications– Export Potential (Other Countries in Asia & Africa)– Caters to growing global demand for clean energy sources.
– Creates new market opportunities for biofuel producers, generating revenue & economic growth.
– International trade policies and regulations for biofuel exports.
– Quality standards and certifications for biofuel exports.
– Global energy demands and access to clean cooking solutions in developing countries.
– International trade agreements and export promotion initiatives.

Challenges in the Biomass Briquettes and Pellets Sector Across Different Stages

The following table summarizes the key challenges faced in the biobased briquettes and pellets sector across different stages of production and utilization

Feedstock Availability & Management– Seasonal VariationsFluctuations in feedstock availability due to harvest seasons can disrupt production and lead to price volatility.
– Sustainable Sourcing PracticesEnsuring environmentally friendly harvesting and collection methods to prevent resource depletion.
– Competition for Land UseBalancing land use between food production and energy crops to avoid competition.
Production & Processing– High Initial InvestmentSignificant upfront costs associated with setting up briquette and pellet production facilities.
– Technology LimitationsLimited access to advanced processing technologies like torrefaction and HTC can hinder efficiency and product quality.
– Skilled Workforce GapLack of skilled personnel to operate and maintain advanced production equipment.
Market & Distribution– Price CompetitivenessBiofuels might face competition from cheaper traditional fuels like firewood and coal.
– Limited AwarenessLow public awareness about the benefits of biofuels, particularly for domestic cooking applications.
– Inefficient Distribution NetworksDifficulty in developing robust and cost-effective distribution networks, especially in rural areas.
Challenges by End-Use Application– Domestic Cooking (Affordability & Accessibility)Ensuring affordability and accessibility of biofuels for low-income households. Encouraging behavioral change towards cleaner cooking methods.
– Industrial Applications (Retrofitting & Supply Contracts)High costs associated with retrofitting existing boilers for biofuels. Difficulty in securing reliable long-term supply contracts for biofuels.
– Power Generation (Investment & Logistics)Large investments are needed for setting up biomass power plants. Challenges in establishing efficient logistics for biomass feedstock. Integrating biomass into existing grid infrastructure.
Regional Variations– Urban vs. Rural DemandTailoring government policies and support structures to address the varying demand patterns in urban and rural areas (domestic vs. industrial applications).
– Infrastructure & DevelopmentSlower adoption in less developed areas due to limited infrastructure and access to technology.

Key Opportunities in the Biomass Briquettes and Pellets Sector in India

1. Addressing the Demand for Clean Cooking Solutions

  • Rural Market Potential: A vast rural population in India relies on traditional cooking methods using firewood and charcoal, leading to indoor air pollution and health problems. Biobased briquettes and pellets offer a cleaner and more efficient alternative, creating a significant market opportunity.
  • Government Initiatives: Government policies promoting clean cooking solutions and subsidies for biofuel adoption in rural areas can significantly boost demand and improve public health.

2. Contributing to Industrial Sustainability

  • Import Substitution: Biobased pellets can potentially replace coal imports for industrial boilers, promoting energy security and reducing reliance on fossil fuels.
  • Industrial Waste Management: The sector can utilize industrial waste like sawdust and wood chips as feedstock, promoting sustainable waste management practices within industries.

3. Renewable Energy Diversification

  • Biomass Power Generation: Large-scale biomass power plants utilizing briquettes or pellets can contribute to a more diverse and renewable energy mix, reducing dependence on conventional sources.
  • Decentralized Power Generation: Briquettes and pellets can be used in smaller-scale biomass gasification units for decentralized power generation in rural or remote areas, improving energy access.

4. Economic Benefits and Job Creation

  • Rural Livelihood Development: The establishment of briquette and pellet production units in rural areas can create new employment opportunities and boost rural economies.
  • Biomass Feedstock Cultivation: The growing demand for feedstock can incentivize dedicated energy crop cultivation, providing additional income sources for farmers.

5. Export Potential and Global Impact

  • Meeting Global Energy Needs: With increasing global demand for clean energy sources, India can emerge as a major exporter of biobased briquettes and pellets, particularly to neighboring countries in Asia and Africa.
  • Sustainable Development Goals: The sector can contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to clean energy access, climate change mitigation, and economic development.

Government Policies Supporting the Biomass Briquettes and Pellets Sector in India

Policy Focus AreaSpecific Policy/SchemeDescriptionTarget Beneficiary
Demand-Side Incentives (Promoting Market Adoption)– Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)Provides subsidies for purchasing cleaner cookstoves that can efficiently utilize biobased briquettes and pellets.Low-income households in rural areas
– National Biomass MissionPromotes the use of biomass for various applications, including briquettes and pellet production. This can indirectly create demand for biofuels.Households (indirectly), industries (alternative fuel source)
– NTPC Co-firing GuidelinesNTPC’s guidelines for co-firing biomass with coal in power plants support the adoption of biomass briquettes and pellets, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainable utilization of biomass resources.Power plants, biofuel producers
Supply-Side Incentives (Encouraging Production)– National Mission on Biogas (NHB)Offers financial assistance for setting up briquette and pellet production units, reducing the initial investment burden.Biofuel producers
– Subsidies for Machinery and TechnologyProvides subsidies for acquiring advanced processing machinery like torrefaction units.Biofuel producers
– Tax BenefitsOffers tax breaks or exemptions on customs duty for importing specific machinery or technology related to briquette and pellet production.Biofuel producers
Policy Frameworks and Regulations (Ensuring Quality and Sustainability)– Standards and CertificationEstablishes quality standards and certification processes for biobased briquettes and pellets, ensuring product consistency and consumer trust.Biofuel producers, consumers
– Sustainable Sourcing GuidelinesPromotes sustainable harvesting practices for feedstock, ensuring the long-term viability of the sector and environmental protection.Biofuel producers, feedstock suppliers
– Biomass Procurement PoliciesEncourages procurement of biobased briquettes and pellets by public institutions or industries, creating a guaranteed market for producers.Biofuel producers, government agencies, industries

Business Models in the Biomass Briquettes and Pellets Sector (India)

The biobased briquettes and pellets sector in India offers various business models catering to different segments of the value chain. Here’s a breakdown of some key models in a table

Business ModelDescriptionKey ActivitiesTarget MarketSuccess Factors
Integrated Producer-RetailerA single entity manages the entire process, from feedstock procurement and processing to briquette/pellet production and retail distribution.– Feedstock sourcing & management
– Production (briquette/pellet making)
– Packaging & branding
– Distribution & retail sales
– Domestic households (rural areas)
– Small-scale industries
– Strong control over the entire value chain
– Efficient logistics & distribution network
– Effective brand-building & marketing
Feedstock SupplierFocuses on collecting, processing, and supplying biomass feedstock to briquette/pellet producers.– Sourcing agricultural residue or dedicated energy crops
– Processing & pre-treatment (drying, size reduction)
– Delivery of feedstock to production facilities

– Briquette/pellet producers
– Reliable supply of high-quality feedstock
– Efficient logistics and transportation network
– Competitive Pricing
Contract ManufacturingOperates a production facility and manufactures briquettes/pellets based on specifications and contracts with other companies.– Production (briquette/pellet making) as per client specifications
– Quality control & assurance
– Delivery of finished products to clients
– Biofuel distributors
– Industrial consumers
– Power plants
– Scalable production capacity
– Flexibility to meet diverse client needs
– Competitive production costs
Technology ProviderDevelops, manufactures, and sells advanced processing technologies (torrefaction units, etc.) to briquette/pellet producers.– Research & development of new technologies
– Manufacturing & sales of processing equipment
– Installation & after-sales service
– Established briquette/pellet producers looking to modernize operations
– New entrants in the sector
– Innovative and efficient technologies
– Strong technical support and service network
– Competitive pricing and financing options
Biomass Waste Management ServiceProvides waste management solutions to industries by collecting and converting their biomass waste (sawdust, wood chips) into briquettes/pellets.– Collection of biomass waste from industries
– Pre-treatment and processing of waste into usable feedstock
– Production of briquettes/pellets for sale or use as industrial fuel
– Industries with significant biomass waste generation
– Power plants seeking alternative fuel sources
– Sustainable waste management solution for industries
– Competitive pricing for briquettes/pellets
– Reliable collection and processing services

Strategic Initiatives by Indian Industries in the Biomass Briquettes and Pellets Sector

CategoryInitiative DescriptionExamples
Captive Power GenerationIndustries setting up biomass power plants that utilize briquettes or pellets as fuel for greater control over energy costs and environmental impact.– ITC Limited
– Mahindra Group
– Dalmia Cement (Bharat)
– Godrej Industries
– Triveni Turbine Limited
Waste-to-Wealth InitiativesIndustries converting their biomass waste (bagasse, straw, wood chips, etc.) into briquettes or pellets for a sustainable waste management solution and creation of a valuable biofuel resource.– Sugar Mills (Bajaj Hindusthan Sugar, Dwarikesh Sugar Industries)
– Paper and Pulp Mills (ITC’s Bhadrachalam Paperboards, The West Coast Paper Mills)
– Agro-Processing Industries (KRBL (India) Limited)
– Distilleries (Mohan Meakin Limited)
– Coffee Processing Units (Partnerships with biofuel producers)
Backward IntegrationLarge industries strategically integrate backward into the briquette and pellet production sector to secure a reliable source of biofuel feedstock and potentially reduce production costs.– Century Pulp and Paper
– Seshasayee Paper and Boards
– The Andhra Paper Mills Limited
– Orient Paper Mills
– JK Paper Limited
Technology PartnershipsIndustries collaborating with technology providers to implement advanced processing technologies like torrefaction for improved quality and efficiency of biofuel production.– Aditya Birla Group with NEXT Renewable Fuels
– Dalmia Bharat Cement with NETRA
– Mahindra Group with Thermax
– Indian Oil Corporation with IGL Green Gas Limited
– Godrej Industries with EnviServe Consulting
Market Expansion and ExportsLeading biofuel producers exploring export opportunities to neighboring countries in Asia and Africa with growing biofuel demand.– UCO Bioenergy Limited
– Emami Biofuels Limited
– Green Agro Fuels Limited
– Thermax Energy Solutions Limited
– Sangam Renewables Private Limited


The biomass briquettes and pellets market in India represents a burgeoning sector with significant potential to transform the country’s energy landscape. By leveraging abundant agricultural residues, forestry waste, and innovative feedstock options like invasive plant species and municipal solid waste, India can effectively address pressing environmental and energy challenges. The sector’s growth is underpinned by strong market drivers such as the increasing demand for clean cooking solutions, government initiatives supporting biofuel adoption, and the rising availability of biomass feedstock. Furthermore, advancements in production technologies, a growing focus on sustainability, and the development of new product formulations are expected to enhance the competitiveness and appeal of biomass briquettes and pellets.

Looking ahead, the biomass briquettes and pellets industry in India can significantly contribute to the country’s renewable energy goals, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, and promote sustainable development. Strategic initiatives by Indian industries, including captive power generation, waste-to-wealth projects, and backward integration, demonstrate the sector’s potential to create economic opportunities, generate employment, and support rural livelihoods. Moreover, with the potential for export growth, India is well-positioned to become a major player in the global biofuel market. By addressing challenges such as feedstock management, production efficiency, and market distribution, and by leveraging emerging technologies like IoT and blockchain, the sector can realize its full potential, fostering a cleaner, greener, and more energy-secure future for India

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